食用菌的真空包装技术

食用菌的真空包装技术
Edible fungus vacuum packaging technology
食用菌的食用性在于它有新鲜的风味和特殊的口感,保鲜技术则是在食用菌贮藏时间以内最大限度地保持这种风 味与口感不变所采取的一切技术措施。 其主要途径有防止水分散失、控制呼吸强度、遏制褐变发生、预防微生物 和害虫侵染等。
主要是维持食用菌菇体最低生命活动的保藏方法。任何有生命的生物体都具有天然的免疫性,以抵御外界微生物 的入侵。采收后的新鲜食用菌菇体仍然进行着生命活动,生命活动越旺盛,菇体内储存物质的分解速度就越快, 储存量急剧减少,组织结构也就随之瓦解或解体,不易久藏。若在低温下(0~5℃)储藏,就能抑制食用菌菇体 的呼吸作用和酶的活力,并延缓储存物质的分解;若保持恒湿条件,就能减少食用菌菇体水分的蒸发。保鲜措施不能使菇体完全停止所有代谢,所以保鲜措施只能延长贮藏期,而不能无限期地将菇体永远保存下来。 因此,通过控制食用菌菇体储藏环境的温度、相对湿度及气体组成等,就可以使食用菌菇体的新陈代谢活动维持 在最低的水平上,能在较长时间内保持它的天然免疫性,抵御微生物的入侵,延缓腐败变质,从而延长其保存期 。食用菌的保鲜方法很多,主要的7点贮藏方法:
1、【冷藏】
冷藏是指用接近于0℃或稍高几度的温度贮藏食用菌的一种方式。低温使得菇体内各种酶活性减小,呼吸作用减 弱,因而减缓了基质的失水失重以及褐变的发生,利于食用菌的保鲜。不同菇类对温度的要求也不同,一般都有 一个最低限度,超过这个限度会引起代谢反常,减弱对不良环境的抗性。
注意:食用菌的冷藏室内不能同时放置水果,因为水果可产生乙烯等还原性物质,使双孢蘑菇、金针菇、香菇、 猴头等食用菌很快变色。
2、【鲜贮】
采收后的鲜菇经整理后立即放入干净的竹篮、竹筐或木桶等容器中,上用多层湿纱布或塑料薄膜覆盖,置阴凉处 。鲜菇在室温下贮藏的时间受温度和空气湿度影响较大。若室温为3~5℃,空气相对湿度为80%左右,鲜菇可贮 藏7天;另外,也可将菇体压于冷水水面以下,但所用水必须卫生,水中的含铁量应低于2毫克/升,这样菇体不仅 不会变黑,而且还可延长保藏期。
3、【气调贮藏】
该方法是通过人工控制环境的气体成分以及温度、湿度等因素,达到安全保鲜的目的。一般是降低空气中氧的浓 度,提高二氧化碳的浓度,再以低温贮藏来控制菌体的生命活动。 适当降低环境中氧气的浓度,增加二氧化碳的 浓度,不仅可以抑制呼吸作用,还可延缓菇体开伞和影响菇体中多酚氧化酶的活性。所以气调贮藏是现代较为先 进的保藏技术。
4、【薄膜包装贮藏】
这是气调贮藏的一种方式。该方法在贮藏过程中氧和二氧化碳的浓度变化不确定,因而多用于短期贮藏、运输以 及作为鲜销的一种临时性贮藏方式。薄膜包装可减少菇体中水分蒸发,保护产品免受机械损伤,另外包装材料来 源广,保存费用低,而且既卫生又美观,是鲜销包装贮藏的良好方法。
5、【真空包装机保鲜】
真空包装机保鲜是基于气调保鲜基础上开发出的新型保鲜技术。是把菇体包装内气压降低,造 成一定的真空度(绝对压力为39~3923Pa)的保鲜方法。
其原理是:在真空下,容器内氧气分压很低,抑制了菇体的呼吸作用,同时也促进了由菇体生命活动所产生的有 害气体如乙烯、乙醛等向环境里的扩散速度,减轻了菇体自身的生理中毒。减压法不但可以延长新鲜食用菌的贮 藏期,而且还有保持菇体色泽、防止组织软化的效果。真空包装机保鲜法是当代更为先进有效的保鲜技术。
6、【化学贮藏】
可以用于贮藏食用菌的化学药品最主要的有0.1%的焦亚硫酸钠,0.6%的氯化钠,4毫克/升的三十烷醇,20毫克/ 升的矮壮素,50毫克/升的青鲜素,50毫克/升乙烯利,0.05%水杨酸,0.05%高锰酸钾和0.1%草酸混合液, 0.05%高锰酸钾和0.1%亚硫酸钠混合液等。
具体做法:将采摘的鲜菇进行修整后,放入上述药液中浸渍l~5分钟,捞出,吸干表面的水分,装入0.03毫米厚 的聚乙烯薄膜袋中,扎紧贮藏。
7、【辐射贮藏】
辐射贮藏是食用菌贮藏的新技术,与其他保藏方法相比有许多优越性。如,无化学残留物,能较好地保持菇体原有的新鲜状态,而且节约能源,加工效率高,可以连续作业,易于自动 化生产等优点。辐射作用对食用菌的影响有以下几点:
(1)抑制呼吸:据报道,用2.5~10戈瑞剂量处理新鲜菇体,对其呼吸作用有显著抑制作用。
(2)抑制开伞:在一定剂量范围内,抑制开伞的效果与辐射剂量成正比。
(3)延缓变色过程:新鲜菇体颜色变深同多酚氧化酶、自溶酶活性增强有关。用10~30戈瑞处理后,酶活性受到抑
制,延缓了菇体变色过程。
(4)杀死或抑制腐败性微生物、病原微生物活动:试验表明,用10戈瑞剂量辐射可抑制疣孢霉等杂菌生长。

香菇真空包装机
香菇真空包装机

Edible fungus vacuum packaging technology
Food edible is that it has a fresh flavor and special taste, preservation technology is in the edible
fungus storage time to maximize the maintenance of this wind

Taste and taste unchanged by all the technical measures taken. Its main approach to prevent water
loss, control of respiratory intensity, to curb the occurrence of browning, prevention of
microorganisms

And pest infestations.
Mainly to maintain the edible mushroom body minimum preservation of life activities. Any living
organism is naturally immune to external microorganisms

The invasion. Harvest fresh edible mushroom body is still carrying out life activities, the more vigorous
life activity, mushroom body decomposition of stored substances faster,

A sharp reduction in storage, organizational structure will also be disintegrated or disintegrated, not
easy to hide a long time. If stored at low temperature (0 ~ 5 ℃), can inhibit mushroom body

Respiration and enzyme activity, and delay the decomposition of stored matter; if the conditions to
maintain constant humidity, can reduce the edible mushroom body water evaporation.
Preservation measures can not make the mushroom body completely stop all metabolism, so the
preservation measures can only extend the storage period, but can not indefinitely preserved
mushroom body forever.

Therefore, by controlling the temperature, relative humidity and gas composition of the mushroom
mushroom body storage environment, the metabolic activity of the mushroom mushroom body can
be maintained

At its lowest level, it can maintain its natural immunity over a long period of time, resist the invasion
of microorganisms, delay the spoilage and prolong its shelf-life

. There are many ways to keep fresh edible mushrooms, the main storage method at 7 o’clock:
1, [cold storage]
Refrigeration refers to a way of storing edible fungi at temperatures close to 0 ° C or slightly higher.
Mushrooms make a variety of low-temperature enzyme activity decreased, reduced respiratory effects

Weak, thus slowing the matrix of water loss and browning occurs, conducive to the preservation of
edible fungi. Different mushrooms on the temperature requirements are different, generally have

A minimum, beyond this limit, can cause metabolic abnormalities and diminish resistance to adverse
environmental conditions.
Note: Edible fungi can not be placed in the refrigerator at the same time, because the fruit can
produce ethylene and other reducing substances, Agaricus bisporus, mushroom, mushrooms,

Hericium edible mushroom quickly discolored.
2, [fresh storage]
Harvested mushrooms after finishing immediately into a clean bamboo basket, bamboo basket or
barrel and other containers, with a multi-layer wet gauze or plastic film covered, set the shade

. Fresh mushroom storage time at room temperature and air humidity greater impact. If the room
temperature is 3 ~ 5 ℃, the air relative humidity of about 80%, fresh mushrooms can be stored

Tibet 7 days; In addition, mushroom body pressure can also be below the surface of cold water, but
the water must be hygienic, the iron content of water should be less than 2 mg / l, so mushroom
body not only

Will not turn black, but also extend the shelf life.
3, 【Atmospheric Storage】
The method is to control the environment through the gas composition and temperature, humidity
and other factors, to achieve the purpose of safety preservation. Generally reduce the concentration
of oxygen in the air

Degrees, increase the concentration of carbon dioxide, and then low temperature storage to control
the life activities of bacteria. Appropriate to reduce the concentration of oxygen in the environment,
increase the carbon dioxide

Concentration, not only can inhibit the respiration, but also delay mushroom parasol umbrella and
affect the body activity of polyphenol oxidase. So the atmosphere is more modern storage first

Advanced deposit technology.
4, [film packaging and storage]
This is a way of storing the atmosphere. The method in the storage process of oxygen and carbon
dioxide concentration changes uncertain, and therefore for the short-term storage, transportation to

And as a temporary sale of fresh storage. Film packaging can reduce the evaporation of moisture in
the mushroom body to protect the product from mechanical damage, the other packaging materials
to

Wide source, save the low cost, but also hygienic and beautiful, is a good way to sell the best
packaging and storage.
5, [vacuum decompression preservation]
Vacuum decompression preservation method is based on the atmosphere of fresh preservation
developed based on the technology is to mushroom body storage place or storage container to
reduce the pressure inside,

Into a certain degree of vacuum (absolute pressure of 39 ~ 3923Pa) preservation method.
The principle is: under vacuum, the partial pressure of oxygen in the container is very low, which
inhibits the respiration of the mushroom body, and at the same time, promotes the

Harmful gases such as ethylene, acetaldehyde and other diffusion rate to the environment, reducing
the body’s own physiological poisoning. Decompression method can not only extend the storage of
fresh edible mushrooms

Tibetan period, but also to maintain mushroom body color, to prevent the effect of tissue softening.
Vacuum decompression preservation method is the contemporary more advanced and effective
preservation technology.
6, 【Chemical Storage】
The main chemicals that can be used for storing edible fungi are 0.1% sodium metabisulfite, 0.6%
sodium chloride, 4 mg / L triacontanol, 20 mg /

Chlormequat 50 mg / l, ethacryl 50 mg / l, 0.05% salicylic acid, a mixture of 0.05% potassium
permanganate and 0.1% oxalic acid,

0.05% potassium permanganate and 0.1% sodium sulfite mixture.
Specific practices: After the picking of fresh mushrooms dressing, into the above liquid immersion l ~
5 minutes, remove, dry the surface of the water, into 0.03 mm thick polyethylene film bag, tie tight
storage.
7, 【Radiation Storage】
Radiation storage is a new technology for the storage of edible fungi and has many advantages over
other preservation methods.
For example, no chemical residues, can better maintain the fresh state of the mushroom body, but
also save energy, processing efficiency, continuous operation, easy to automate

The advantages of production. The effects of radiation on edible mushrooms have the following
points:
(1) Respiratory Breathing: It has been reported that the treatment of fresh mushrooms with a dose of
2.5 to 10 Gy significantly inhibits their respiration.
(2) inhibit the parachute: in a certain dose range, the effect of inhibiting parachute and radiation dose
is proportional to.
(3) to delay the process of discoloration: fresh mushroom body color deepening with polyphenol
oxidase, autolytic activity increased. After treatment with 10 to 30 Gy, the enzyme activity was
inhibited

System, delayed the discoloration of mushroom body.
(4) Kill or inhibit the activity of corrosive microorganisms and pathogenic microorganisms: The
experiment shows that the radiation with 10 Guerre can inhibit the growth of other bacteria such as
Worm spores.


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